This type of oil, due to its technical characteristics, offers a series of advantages in the form of chemical stability and resistance to degradation at high temperatures.
It is an artificial base and therefore on the order of 3 to 5 times more expensive to produce than the mineral base. It is made in the laboratory and may or may not come from petroleum . They have excellent thermal stability and oxidation resistance properties, as well as a high natural viscosity index (SAE 30). They have a very low traction coefficient, which gives a good reduction in energy consumption.
There are several types of synthetic lubricants:
1.- HIDROCRACK or group 3
2.- PAO or group 4
3.- GDP or group 5
1.- Hydrocrack. It is a synthetic base of organic origin that is obtained from the hydrogenation of the mineral base through the hydrocracking process. It is the synthetic lubricant most used by oil companies due to its low cost in reference to other synthetic bases and its surplus mineral base from the distillation of crude oil to obtain fossil fuels.
2.- PAO. It is a synthetic base of organic origin but more elaborate than hydrocrack, which adds a chemical compound at the molecular level called Poly-Alphaolefins that give it high resistance to temperature and very little volatility (evaporation).
3.- GDP. It is a synthetic base created for the elimination of smoke in the lubricant by mixing in 2-stroke engines. It is called Polyisobutylene.
4.- ESTER. It is a synthetic base that does not derive from petroleum but from the reaction of a fatty acid with an alcohol. It is the most expensive synthetic base to make because 2 out of 5 productions are rejected in its natural "cut" manufacturing.
It is mainly used in aeronautics where its properties of extreme temperature resistance ranging from -68 ° C to +325 ° C and the polarity that allows the lubricant to adhere to metal parts due to the fact that in its generation it acquires electromagnetic charge, make it This base is the queen of bases in terms of liquid lubricants. The ester is commonly used in automotive competition lubricants.
The base of a lubricant by itself does not offer all the protection that an industrial engine or component needs, so in the manufacture of the lubricant a certain compound of additives is added according to the needs of the engine manufacturer (Approval or Authorized Level) or the use to which the lubricant in question is to be used.
The additives used in the lubricant are:
Antioxidants : They delay the premature aging of the lubricant.
Extreme Pressure Wear (EP) : They form a thin film on the walls to be lubricated. They are widely used in sputtering lubrication (gearboxes and differentials)
Antifoams : They prevent the oxygenation of the lubricant by cavitation reducing the surface tension and thus prevent the formation of bubbles that would bring air to the lubrication circuit.
Anti-rust : Prevents the formation of rust on the internal metal walls of the motor and the condensation of water vapor.
Detergents : They are responsible for removing the dirt deposits resulting from combustion. Look here for additional insights: How is Synthetic Oil Made?
Dispersants : They are responsible for transporting the dirt removed by the detergent additives to the filter or crankcase of the engine.
Thickeners : It is a compound of polymers that by action of temperature increase in size increasing the viscosity of the lubricant so that it continues to provide a constant lubrication pressure.
Thinners : It is an additive that reduces the wax microcrystals so that the lubricant flows at low temperatures